Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography.
The four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences. Geography is a systematic study of the Universe and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartologythis is not their main preoccupation.
Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns.
Names of places Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latterto compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man. This is 'a description of the world'—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect.
Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they also exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography.
The former largely focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view, manage, and influence space.
The latter examines the natural environment, and how organismsclimate, soilwaterand landforms produce and interact. Physical geography or physiography focuses on geography as an Earth science. It aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithospherehydrosphereatmospherepedosphereand global flora and fauna patterns biosphere.
Physical Geography is the study of earth's seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms, and oceans. Environmental management. Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society. It encompasses the humanpoliticalculturalsocialand economic aspects.
Political geog. Religion geography. Transportation geography. Integrated geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world. It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment.
Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between human and physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name. Give points yo advocate thst biology is linked with physics chemistry mathsmatics geography. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.
Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Wiki User No one would know where exactly where they were in the world if we didn't have geography. It helps us to know things around us and how to utilize them. It helps us to know places on earth. It helps us to understand the way of life of other people. Asked in History of the Philippines, Geography, History What is the importance of geography in studying history?
Importance of statistics in geographical studies. Asked in Statistics, Geography, History of the Philippines What is the importance of geography in tourism? Geography is very important for tourism because it determines its destination. Asked in Geography Explain the importance of geography? Statistics are used in geography to track locations and census information.
History of geography
This is important to know to see how different types of geography change. Asked in Geography, Landforms, Mapping and Cartography What is importance of maps and pictures in geography?It is the study of our planet and its structure, e.
Importance of Physical geography. Physical geography is the branch of geography dealing with natural features and processes. It includes the study of lithosphere Examples: landforms, drainage, relief and physiographyatmosphere its composition, formation, elements and controls of weather and temperature, pressure, winds, rainfall, climatic types, etc. Soils are formed through the process of pedogenesis and depend upon the parent rocks, climate, biological activity, and time.
Physical Geography plays a very vital role in the very existence of human beings. Every student who studies about the planet earth should also study Physical Geography. This is because physical geography involves the study of the natural processes of the earth. The study of physical Geography is essential for the sufficient allocation of the natural resources on the earth.
It is essential for enabling human resolution as per the adjacent conditions and to be improved informed in order to protect our planet earth. Time provides maturity to soils and facilitates in the maturity of soil shapes. Each component is significant for human beings. Landforms give the base on which human activities are placed. The plains are utilized for agriculture. Plateaus provide forests and minerals. Mountains provide pastures, forests, tourist spots and are sources of rivers providing water to lowlands.
Climate influences our house types, clothing and food habits. The weather has a thoughtful consequence on vegetation, cropping pattern, domestic animals farming, and several industries, etc. Human beings have developed technologies which adjust climatic elements in a restricted space such as air conditioners and coolers.
Temperature and rainfall make sure the compactness of forests and quality of grassland. For, example, in India, monsoonal rainfall sets the cultivation measure in motion. Rainfall recharges the soil water aquifer which later provides water for agriculture and household use.
We study oceans which are the storehouse of resources. Besides fish and other sea-food, oceans are rich in mineral resources. India has developed the technology for collecting manganese nodules from the oceanic bed.Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitudeelevationisolation and habitat area.
Zoogeography is the branch that studies distribution of animals. Mycogeography is the branch that studies distribution of fungi, such as mushrooms. Knowledge of spatial variation in the numbers and types of organisms is as vital to us today as it was to our early human ancestorsas we adapt to heterogeneous but geographically predictable environments. Biogeography is an integrative field of inquiry that unites concepts and information from ecologyevolutionary biologygeologyand physical geography.
Modern biogeographic research combines information and ideas from many fields, from the physiological and ecological constraints on organismal dispersal to geological and climatological phenomena operating at global spatial scales and evolutionary time frames. The short-term interactions within a habitat and species of organisms describe the ecological application of biogeography. Historical biogeography describes the long-term, evolutionary periods of time for broader classifications of organisms.
Beginning in the midth century, Europeans explored the world and discovered the biodiversity of life. The scientific theory of biogeography grows out of the work of Alexander von Humboldt — Hewett Cottrell Watson — Alphonse de Candolle — Alfred Russel Wallace — Philip Lutley Sclater — and other biologists and explorers. The patterns of species distribution across geographical areas can usually be explained through a combination of historical factors such as: speciationextinctioncontinental driftand glaciation.
Through observing the geographic distribution of species, we can see associated variations in sea levelriver routes, habitat, and river capture. Additionally, this science considers the geographic constraints of landmass areas and isolation, as well as the available ecosystem energy supplies.
It also asks Why? Modern biogeography often employs the use of Geographic Information Systems GISto understand the factors affecting organism distribution, and to predict future trends in organism distribution. Biogeography is most keenly observed on the world's islands. These habitats are often much more manageable areas of study because they are more condensed than larger ecosystems on the mainland. They can then apply their understanding to similar but more complex mainland habitats.
Islands are very diverse in their biomesranging from the tropical to arctic climates. This diversity in habitat allows for a wide range of species study in different parts of the world. One scientist who recognized the importance of these geographic locations was Charles Darwinwho remarked in his journal "The Zoology of Archipelagoes will be well worth examination". The first discoveries that contributed to the development of biogeography as a science began in the midth century, as Europeans explored the world and described the biodiversity of life.
During the 18th century most views on the world were shaped around religion and for many natural theologists, the bible. Carl Linnaeusin the midth century, initiated the ways to classify organisms through his exploration of undiscovered territories. When he noticed that species were not as perpetual as he believed, he developed the Mountain Explanation to explain the distribution of biodiversity; when Noah's ark landed on Mount Ararat and the waters receded, the animals dispersed throughout different elevations on the mountain.
This showed different species in different climates proving species were not constant. Through his strong beliefs in Christianity, he was inspired to classify the living world, which then gave way to additional accounts of secular views on geographical distribution.
This was important to a George Louis Buffon's rival theory of distribution.
Closely after Linnaeus, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon observed shifts in climate and how species spread across the globe as a result. He was the first to see different groups of organisms in different regions of the world.
Buffon saw similarities between some regions which led him to believe that at one point continents were connected and then water separated them and caused differences in species. This was inspired by his observations comparing the Old and New World, as he determined distinct variations of species from the two regions. Buffon believed there was a single species creation event, and that different regions of the world were homes for varying species, which is an alternate view than that of Linnaeus.
Buffon's law eventually became a principle of biogeography by explaining how similar environments were habitats for comparable types of organisms. Following this period of exploration came the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, which attempted to explain the patterns of biodiversity observed by Buffon and Linnaeus.
At the end of the 18th century, Alexander von Humboldt, known as the "founder of plant geography",  developed the concept of physique generale to demonstrate the unity of science and how species fit together.The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups. In more recent developments, geography has become a distinct academic discipline.
The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes — BC. However, there is evidence for recognizable practices of geography, such as cartography or map-making prior to the use of the term geography. The known world of Ancient Egypt saw the Nile as the centre, and the world as based upon "the" river. Various oases were known to the east and west, and were considered locations of various gods e. Siwafor Amon To the South lay the Kushitic region, known as far as the 4th cataract.
Punt was a region south along the shores of the Red Sea. At various times especially in the Late Bronze Age Egyptians had diplomatic and trade relationships with Babylonia and Elam. The Mediterranean was called "the Great Green" and was believed to be part of a world encircling ocean. Europe was unknown although may have become part of the Egyptian world view in Phoenician times. To the west of Asia lay the realms of Keftiupossibly Creteand Mycenae thought to be part of a chain of islands, that joined Cyprus, Crete, Sicily and later perhaps SardiniaCorsica and the Balarics to Africa.
The oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean. The descriptions of five of them have survived. In contrast to the Imago Mundian earlier Babylonian world map dating back to the 9th century BC depicted Babylon as being further north from the center of the world, though it is not certain what that center was supposed to represent. The ancient Greeks saw the poet Homer as the founder of geography.
Homer describes a circular world ringed by a single massive ocean. The works show that the Greeks by the 8th century BC had considerable knowledge of the geography of the eastern Mediterranean. The poems contain a large number of place names and descriptions, but for many of these it is uncertain what real location, if any, is actually being referred to. Thales of Miletus is one of the first known philosophers known to have wondered about the shape of the world.
He proposed that the world was based on water, and that all things grew out of it. He also laid down many of the astronomical and mathematical rules that would allow geography to be studied scientifically. His successor Anaximander is the first person known to have attempted to create a scale map of the known world and to have introduced the gnomon to Ancient Greece. Hecataeus of Miletus initiated a different form of geography, avoiding the mathematical calculations of Thales and Anaximander he learnt about the world by gathering previous works and speaking to the sailors who came through the busy port of Miletus.
From these accounts he wrote a detailed prose account of what was known of the world. A similar work, and one that mostly survives today, is Herodotus ' Histories. While primarily a work of history, the book contains a wealth of geographic descriptions covering much of the known world. This was not completely abandoned by Western cartographers until the circumnavigation of Africa by Vasco da Gama. He is the first to have noted the process by which large rivers, such as the Nile, build up deltasand is also the first recorded as observing that winds tend to blow from colder regions to warmer ones.
Pythagoras was perhaps the first to propose a spherical world, arguing that the sphere was the most perfect form. This idea was embraced by Platoand Aristotle presented empirical evidence to verify this.Studying geography is an essential part of being a global citizen, as it has a huge impact on how civilizations form.
Geography also helps students understand how the physical world works. Geography is an important part of history and the modern age. Geography is part of everyday life and includes the land, weather, economic structure and culture of the world. Clothing styles, for example, are determined by geography because geographical location determines the temperature, climate and available materials for textiles.
Studying geography encourages students to think critically about how the surroundings of a culture can trigger the change and development of the society. Without geography, it is impossible to understand how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes and the water cycle work. The modern world is also very globalized, meaning that different countries and individuals are connected through entertainment, communication and economy, such as products manufactured in China that are sold in the United States.
Because of this, it is necessary for people to be aware and realize the importance of the world and its countries. Understanding where countries are located, which in turn helps the learner understand basic cultural elements, is a great way to learn how the countries fit into global politics and economies.
Home Geography. What Is the Importance of Literature Review?Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities —not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be. Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.
Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmospherehydrospherebiosphereand geosphere. The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:. Wikibooks Books. Commons Media. Wikiversity Learning resources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Portal maintenance status: February This portal has a single page layout.
Any subpages are likely no longer needed. Please take care when editing, especially if using automated editing software. Learn how to update the maintenance information here. Wikipedia's portal for exploring content related to Geography. Read more Vital articles articles to understand Geography.
Other vital articles. Did you know it about Geography? For editor resources and to collaborate with other editors on improving Wikipedia's Geography-related articles, visit WikiProject Geography. To help assess the quality and importance of geography articles, please see: Unassessed geography articles and Unknown-importance geography articles.Jerusalem: 4000 Years in 5 Minutes
You can read about interesting Wikipedia articles about places around you. Featured articles in Geography. Each label is linked to an article or image. Click here for larger map. More featured articles. Waterfalls in Ricketts Glen State Park. No reported cases, no population, or no data available.
Researchers and popular media use the early s as starting birth years and the mids to early s as ending birth years, with to a widely accepted defining range for the generation.
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